Aqui temos um pequeno excerto de texto de um livro técnico de linguística (em inglês /2012) onde o nosso falar germânico regional, o alemão Riograndenser Hunsrückisch, é explicitamente citado por nome.
Dohier ist en koorz Textauszuch, aus enem technisches Sprochwissenschaft-Buch in 2012 veröffentlicht, wo unser Riograndenser Hunsrückisch ausdrücklich zittiert und explizit erwöhnt geb ist.
The Handbook of Historical Sociolinguistics
Edited by Juan M. Hernández-Campoy and
J. Camilo Conde-Silvestre
Wiley-Blackwell & Sons
First edition first published 2012
Part IV Historical Dialectology, Language Contact, Change, and Diffusion
29 – page 534/704 p.p.
The Impact of Migratory Movements on Linguistic Systems: Transplanted Speech Communities and Varieties from a Historical Sociolinguistic Perspective by Daniel Schreier
3. Exploring the Sociolinguistic Processes Induced by Population Movements
Several stages can be identified in the formation of contact-derived dialects. First of all, the total number of variants present in the contact scenario represents a pool out of which the first native speakers select features during the initial formation phase (Mufwene 2001). None of the input varieties ‘wins out’ at this stage; were it to do so, then all but one variety present in the contact scenario would disappear without a trace and the newly developing variety would be the equivalent of one of its inputs. Riograndenser Hunsrückisch would merely be a transplanted (and systematically unaltered) form of a Rhineland-Palatinate German dialect in Brazil, Australian Englisch exported Cockney, Québec French the equivalent of a regional variety found in France, Brazilian the equivalent of Portuguese, and so on. This is hardly ever the case, since speakers accommodate to each other, as a result of which features are combined in novel ways by the first generations of native-born speakers. The usual outcome is that the inputs undergo a stage of mixing, driven by mechanisms such as a feature selection and retention. Consequently, contact between linguistic systems triggers selection processes of features from several co-existing varieties (Kerswill 1996, 2002), and this may be influenced by factors such as total number of features present, the salience, stigma, and prestige of individual variables, sociodemographic characteristics and sociability. Fully-developed koinés, the end-product of focusing (Le Page and Tabouret-Keller 1985) that derive from some or all the dialects present in the original contact situation.
Another important process in this context is leveling: the majority of variants found in a diffuse mixture situation gradually disappear as features are permanently selected (Trudgill 1986; Siegel 1987; Britain 1997). Contact-induced language change has strong tendencies towards regularity and transparency. Though the precise nature of what determines leveling is still unknown, there is consensus that status (stigma or prestige) and frequency are important criteria. Variants that are regionally or socially marked are usually not maintained (Mesthrie 1993) and those with the widest social and geographical distribution have the highest chances of surviving the selection process (Trudgill 1986). The surviving form is usually the one found in the majority of inputs (Mesthrie 1993; Siegel 1987), and this led Trudgil (2004) to adopt an extreme (and controversial) hypothesis, namely that it is the frequency of features alone that accounts for adoption. Social factors (prestige, status, social network structures, and so on), as a consequence, would simply be irrelevant (further discussion below).4
Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy is Professor in Sociolinguistics at the University of Murcia, Spain, where he teaches undergraduate courses on English Sociolinguistics, Dialectology, and the History of English, as well as sociolinguistic research methods for postgraduate students. His books include Style-Shifting in Public (with J.A. Cutillas-Espinosa, 2012), Diccionario de Sociolingüística (with P. Trudgill, 2007), Metodología de la Investigación Sociolingüística (with M. Almeida, 2005), and Geolingüística (1999).
Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre is Professor in English Historical Linguistics at the University of Murcia, Spain, where he teaches on the History of the English Language and Research Methods in Language Variation and Change. His books include Sociolinguistica Histórica (2007), Sociolinguistics and the History of English (with J.M. Hernández-Campoy, 2005) and Variation and Linguistic Change in English (with J.M. Hernández-Campoy, 1999).
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